Friendly and enemies
Ants are not always alone in their nest: the opening of an anthill can reveal a strange meeting of inhabitants. At side of the ants, there are caterpillars, larvae of Coleopters, worms. The nest can also contain many plant louses, the "cattle" of ants. One also finds Coleopters, hosts or parasites, ones are welcome, other undesirable ones.
Coleopters Of Kind "Claviger"
Majority of Coleopters hosts of the anthill are welcome. There is more than one thousand of species of Coleopters which can cohabit with the ants. Most curious species are genera Claviger which claim their food by cherishing antennas of ants, just like ants do it between them. But to exchanges some they provide a sweetened liquid whose ants love. This liquid secreted by tufts of hairs laid out on the back is produced when hairs are cherished by ants.
Coleopters staphylins of genera Lomechusa are not such welcome hosts. Unfortunately for ants Lomechusas lay in anthill and their eggs gives larvae which eat eggs of ants and is nourish by workers. larvae of these Coleopters look like larvae of ants and it seems that ants don't see the difference.
Les parasites sont nettement mal vus dans une fourmilière. Quand les fourmis les découvrent elles les chassent, mais certains de ces Coléoptères sont si bien protégés par leur carapace dure que les fourmis ne peuvent les attaquer avec succès. Ainsi, bien à l'abri, ils continuent a piller les fourmilières.
Certain parasitic Insects of small size as Lépismes hide in
Certains Insectes parasites de petite taille comme les Lépismes se cachent dans les tunnels des fourmilières et se précipitent dès qu'une fourmi en nourrit une autre. Au moment où une goutte de nourriture passe d'une bouche à l'autre le Lépisme voleur se faufile entre les deux fourmis et vole la nourriture de leur bouche même.
Another parasite, the small ant
Un autre parasite, la petite fourmi voleuse, se nourrit des jeunes de fourmis de plus grande taille. Les fourmis voleuses construisent leurs nids à côté des tunnels d'une colonie de fourmis de grande taille. Ces voleuses se précipitent hors de leurs petits tunnels et font des raids rapides dans les nurseries et les chambres à provisions. Les grandes fourmis les chassent mais les petites voleuses se sauvent en se faufilant dans leurs tunnels où les autres, trop grandes, ne peuvent les suivre. Ces petites fourmis se nourrissent des larves de fourmis plus grandes, ne peuvent les suivre.
Harmful ants the fortunately moderated countries do not
Many harmful ants currently living in North America were imported accidentally: the majority of these species, come from the tropical areas of Central America or the South and even of Africa. Ants arrive with cargoes of food or products transported by boats and, if they have good conditions in the new country, they multiply and sometimes even replace or drive out the indigenous species. The trains and the trucks, with their loadings of goods, facilitate the dispersion of these ants in all direction.
Ants Of Kind "Iridomyrmex"
Not other foreign species multiplied in North America as quickly and easily as ants of genera Iridomyrmex.imported of South America at the beginning of the century, probably by boats bringing of coffee of Brazil. Currently we can find them to Pacific to Atlantic, as well in houses as in the farms. They are intrepid ants, eating anything. Iridomyrmex make their nests not only in the ground but in the wood heaps, foundations of houses and even in old metal containers. They are the most harmful ants of North America: they devastate gardens and the orchards and can even invade houses in such numbers that they drive out the inhabitants of them !
Ants Of Kind "Solenopsis"
Another ant, pertaining to the genera Solenopsis, acclimatized itself in the south of North America. Also imported of South America, it arrived at the United States about 1920; currently it exists in a quarter of the country. These ants, of red color brown, often called ants of fire, this name because of their painful puncture. They prick by seizing the flesh with their mandibles and while plunging their pivot in the wound, which causes an extreme pain. Their extremely painful puncture for the man can cause the death of small animals.
Solenopsis cause great damage to harvests by digging holes in roots and stems but they are even more harmful by the hard ground mound than they form. These 30 height centimetres mound can be with the number of more than two hundreds per hectare of cultivated ground. The blades of mowers twist and are damage by striking these mound and the workers of the fields are unceasingly in danger to be attacked by the ants.
Harmful Domestic Ants
Some species of ants, true plagues, invade also the houses. One can sometimes happen to get rid some thanks to the poisons. The poison acts indeed in the following way: the workers drink it then transport it to the colony in their jabot to nourish the others; thus, without the knowledge, the workers poison the queen and the young ants of the colony.